Lee X (2018) Fundamentals of Boundary-Layer Meteorology. Springer. book cover / contents / index / image files / lecture files / corrections / instructor solutions manual

Lee X (2009) Lectures on China’s Environment. Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies Publication Series Report Number 20. download pdf version

Lee X, W Massman, B Law (2004) Handbook of Micrometeorology: A Guide for Surface Flux Measurement and Analysis. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (ISBN 1-4020-2264-6, available from   erratum

Journal articles, dissertations and book chapters 


Xiao K, TJ Griffis, JM Baker, PV Bolstad, MD Erickson,  X Lee, JD Wood, C Hu, JL Nieber (2018) Evaporation from a temperate closed-basin lake and its impact on present, past,  and future water level. Journal of Hydrology, in press.

Yang Y, Y Wang, Z Zhang, W Wang, X Ren, Y Gao, S Liu, X Lee (2018) Diurnal and seasonal variations of thermal stratification and vertical mixing in a shallow fresh water lake. Journal of Meteorological Research, in press.

Wei Z, X Lee, Z Liu, U Seeboonruang, M Koike, K Yoshimura (2018) Influences of large-scale convection and moisture source on monthly precipitation isotope ratios observed in Thailand, Southeast Asia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 488: 181-192.  reprint | online supplement

Wei Z, X Lee, X Wen, W Xiao (2018) Evapotranspiration partitioning for three agro-ecosystems with contrasting moisture conditions: a comparison of an isotope method and a two-source model calculation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 252: 296-310.  reprint | online supplement

Li H, F Meier, X Lee, T Chakratorty, J Liu, M Schaap, S Sodoudi (2018) Interaction between urban heat island and urban pollution island in Berlin during summer. Science of Total Environment, in review

Wang L, X Lee, N Schultz, S Chen, Z Wei, C Fu, Y Gao, Y Yang, G Lin (2018)  Response of surface temperature to afforestation in the Kubuqi Desert, Inner Mongolia. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 123: 948-964.  reprint | online supplement

Gao Y, X Lee, S Liu, N Hu, X Wei, C Hu, C Liu, Z Zhang, Y Yang (2018)  Spatiotemporal variability of the near-surface CO2 concentration across an industrial-urban-rural transect, Nanjing, China. Science of the Total Environment, 631-632: 1192-1200.  reprint

Hu C, TJ Griffis, X Lee, DB Millet, Z Chen, J Baker, K Xiao (2018) Top-down constraints on anthropogenic CO2 emissions within an agricultural-urban landscape. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, in press. 

Fu C, X Lee, TJ Griffis, JM Baker, PA Turner (2018) A modeling study of direct and indirect N2O emissions from a representative catchment in the US Corn Belt. Water Resources Research, in press.



Xiao W,  X Lee, Y Hu, S Liu, W Wang, X Wen, M Werner, C Xie (2017) An experimental investigation of kinetic fractionation of open-water evaporation over a large lake. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122, 11651–11663.  reprint / online supplement /data supplement

Zhao L, X Lee, N Schultz (2017) A wedge strategy for mitigation of urban warming in future climate scenarios. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17: 9067–9080. reprint / online supplement / animation 1 / animation 2

Schultz N (2017)  Global Analysis of the Biophysical Effects of Deforestation in a Changing Climate. PhD Dissertation, Yale University. e-copy

Schultz N, P Lawrence, X Lee (2017) Global satellite data highlights the diurnal asymmetry of the surface temperature response to deforestation. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences122,: 903–917, doi:10.1002/2016JG003653. reprint  / online supplement | EOS Research Spotlight

Wei Z, K Yoshimura, L Wang, D Miralles, S Jasechko, X Lee (2017) Revisiting the contribution of transpiration to global terrestrial evapotranspiration. Geophysical Research Letters 44: 2792–2801.  reprint  /  online supplement

Wang, K, S Jiang, J Wang, C Zhou, X Wang, and X Lee (2017) Comparing the diurnal and seasonal variabilities of atmospheric and surface urban heat islands based on the Beijing urban meteorological network. Journal of  Geophysical  Research  - Atmospheres 122: 2131–2154. reprint

Hu C, Y Wang, W Wang, S Liu, M Piao, W Xiao, X Lee (2017) Trends in evaporation of a large subtropical lake. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 129: 159-170.  reprint

Wang Y, Y Gao, H Qin, J Huang, C Liu, C Hu, W Wang, S Liu, X Lee (2017) Spatiotemporal characteristics of lake breezes over Lake Taihu, China. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 56: 2053-2065. reprint

Griffis T, Z Chen, J Baker, J Wood, D Millet, X Lee, R Venterea, P Turner (2017) Nitrous oxide emissions are enhanced in a warmer and wetter world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114: 12081-12085. reprint

Fu C, X Lee, TJ GriffisEJ Dlugokencky, AE Andrews (2017) Investigation of the N2O emission strength in the U. S. Corn Belt. Atmospheric Research 194: 66-77.  reprint /  online supplement 

Xiao Q, M Zhang, Z Hu, Y Gao, C Hu, C Liu, S Liu, Z Zhang, J Zhao, W Xiao, X Lee (2017) Spatial variations of methane emission in a large shallow eutrophic lake in subtropical climate. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences 122: 1597-1614. reprint / online supplement

Wang L, X Lee, W Wang, X Wang, Z Wei, C Fu, Y Gao, L Lu, W Song, P Su, G Lin (2017) A meta-analysis of open-path eddy covariance observations of apparent CO2 flux in cold conditions in the FLUXNET network. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 34:2475–2487. reprint / online supplement 

Xu JP, X Lee, W Xiao, C Cao, S Liu, X Wen, JZ Xu, Z Zhang, J Zhao (2017) Interpreting the 13C/12C ratio of carbon dioxide in an urban airshed in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17: 3385–3399. reprint / Data and Supplemental Information

Cao F, S Zhang, K Kawamura, X Liu, C Yang, Z Xu, M Fan, W Zhang, M Bao, Y Chang, W Song, S Liu, X Lee, J Li, G Zhang, Y Zhang (2017) Chemical characteristics of dicarboxylic acids and related organic compounds in PM2.5 during biomass-burning and non-biomass-burning  seasons at a rural site of Northeast China. Environmental Pollution 231: 654-662. reprint

Chang Y, C Deng, F Cao, C Cao, Z Zou, S Liu, X Lee, J Li, G Zhang, Y Zhang (2017) Assessment of carbonaceous aerosols in Shanghai, China-Part 1: Long-term evolution, seasonal variations and meteorological effects. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17: 9945-9964. reprint

Zhang Y, H Ren, Y Sun,  F Cao, Y Chang,  S Liu,  X Lee, K Agrios, K Kawamura, D Liu, L Ren,  W Du, Wei, Z Wang, A  Prevot, S Szidat, P Fu (2017) High contribution of non-fossil sources to sub-micron organic aerosols in Beijing, China. Environmental Science and Technology  51: 7842-7852. reprint

Bao M, F Cao, Y Chang, Y Zhang, Y Gao, X Liu, Y Zhang, W Zhang, T Tang, S Liu, X Lee, J Li, G Zhang (2017) Characteristics and origins of air pollutants and carbonaceous aerosols during wintertime haze episodes at a rural site in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Atmospheric Pollution Research 8: 900-911. reprint


Cao C, X Lee, S Liu, N Schultz, W Xiao, M Zhang, L Zhao (2016) Urban heat islands in China enhanced by haze pollution. Nature Communications DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12509. reprint / Yale press release | Nature article on collaboration

Covey KR, CP Bueno de Mesquita, B Oberle, DS Maynard, C Bettigole, TW Crowther, MC Duguid, B Steven, AE Zanne, M Lapin, MS Ashton, CD Oliver, X Lee, MA Bradford (2016) Greenhouse trace gases in dead wood. Biogeochemistry 130: 215-226. reprint

Wang W, JP Xu, Y Gao, I Bogoev, J Cui, L Deng, C Hu, C Liu, S Liu, J Shen, X Sun, W Xiao, G Yuan, X Lee (2016) Performance evaluation of an integrated open-path eddy covariance system in a cold desert environment. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology  33: 2385-2399. reprint /  online supplement 

Chen Z, TJ Griffis, DB Millet, J Wood, X Lee, JM Baker, K Xiao, P Turner, M Chen, J Zobitz (2016) Partitioning N2O emissions within the US Corn Belt using an inverse modeling approach. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 30: 1192–1205. reprint

Schultz NM, X Lee, PJ Lawrence, DM Lawrence, L Zhao (2016) Assessing the use of sub-grid land model output to study impacts of land cover change. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres 121: 6133–6147. reprint | online supplement

Turner PA, TJ Griffis, JM Baker, X Lee, JT Crawford, LC Loken, RT Venterea (2016) The non-linearity of nitrous oxide production in rivers. Geophysical Research Letters 43: 4400-4407. reprint

Griffis TJ,  JD Wood, JM Baker, X Lee, K Xiao, Z Chen, G Gorski, N Schultz, L Welp, M Chen, J Nieber (2016) Investigating the source, transport and isotope fractionation of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16: 5139–5157. reprint

Aslan-Sungur G, X Lee, F Evrendilek, N Karakaya (2016) Large interannual variability in net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange of a disturbed temperate peatland. Science of the Total Environment 554–555: 192–202. reprint  

Wen X, B Yang, X Sun, X Lee (2016) Evapotranspiration partitioning through in-situ oxygen isotope measurements in an oasis cropland. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 230-231: 89-96reprint

Xiao W, X Wen, W Wang, Q Xiao, J Xu, C Cao, J Xu, C Hu, J Shen, S Liu, X Lee (2016) Spatial distribution and temporal variability of stable water isotopes in a large and shallow lake. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies52:443-454 . reprint / online supplement data access

Zhao L, X Lee, AE Suyker, X Wen (2016) Influence of leaf area index on the radiometric resistance to heat transfer. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 105: 105-123. reprint / PhD Thesis


Turner PA,  TJ Griffis, X Lee, JM Baker, RT Venterea, JD Wood (2015) Indirect nitrous oxide emission from streams within the US Corn Belt. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112: 9839–9843. reprint

Zhao L (2015) Natural and Anthropogenic Contributions to Urban Heat Islands. PhD Dissertation, Yale University. e-copy

Lee X, Z Gao, C Zhang, F Chen, Y Hu, W Jiang, S Liu, L Lu, J Sun, J Wang, Z Zeng, Q Zhang, Ming Zhao, Mingyu Zhou (2015) Priorities for boundary-layer meteorology research in China. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society 96: ES149-ES151. reprint

Hu Z, Q Xiao, J Yang, W Xiao, W Wang, S Liu, X Lee (2015) Temporal dynamics and regulation of ecosystem metabolism in a large subtropical shallow lake (Lake Taihu). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12: 3691–3706. reprint

Zhang X, X Lee, TJ Griffis, AE Andrews, JM Baker, MD Erickson, N Hu, W Xiao (2015) Quantifying nitrous oxide fluxes on multiple spatial scales in the Upper Midwest, USA. International Journal of Biometeorology 59: 299–310. reprint


Zhao L, X Lee, RB Smith, K Oleson (2014) Strong contributions of local background climate to urban heat islands. Nature 511: 216-219. reprint / Nature News & Views / Nature Geoscience News & Views / Yale News Release /  LA Times / USA Today / Business Insider  Nature article on collaboration

Lee X, S Liu, W Xiao, W Wang, Z Gao, C Cao, C Hu, Z Hu, S Shen, Y Wang, X Wen, Q Xiao, J Xu, J Yang, M Zhang (2014) The Taihu Eddy Flux Network: an observational program on energy, water, and greenhouse gas fluxes of a large freshwater lake. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society 95: 1583-1594. reprint

Xiao W, S Liu, H Li, Q Xiao, W Wang, Z Hu, C Hu, Y Gao, J Shen, X Zhao, M Zhang, X Lee (2014) A flux-gradient system for simultaneous measurement of the CH4, CO2 and H2O fluxes at a lake-air interface. Environmental Science and Technology 48: 14490−14498. reprint / online supplement / data access (readmedata file)

Zhang X, X Lee, TJ Griffis, JM Baker, W Xiao (2014) Estimating regional greenhouse gas fluxes: An uncertainty analysis of planetary boundary layer techniques and bottom-up inventories. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14: 10705–10719. reprint

Santos E, C Wagner-Riddle, X Lee, J Warland, S Brown, R Staebler, P Bartlett, K Kim (2014) Temporal dynamics of oxygen isotope compositions of soil and canopy CO2 fluxes in a temperate deciduous forest. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, 119: 996-1013. reprint

Shen S, D Yang,  W Xiao, S Liu, X Lee (2014) Constraining anthropogenic CH4 emission in Nanjing and the Yangtze River Delta, China using atmospheric CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 31: 1343–1352. reprint

Hu Z, X Wen, X Sun, L Li, G Yu, X Lee, S Li (2014) Partitioning evapotranspiration through oxygen isotopic measurements of water pools and fluxes in a temperate grassland. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences 119: 358-371. reprint

Zhang M, X Lee, G Yu, S Han, H Wang, J Yan, Y Zhang, Y Li, T Ohta, T Hirano, J Kim, N Yoshifuji, W Wang (2014) Response of surface air temperature to small-scale land clearing across latitudes. Environmental Research Letters 9: 034002. reprint / online supplement / Enviromental Research Web news release 

Wang W, W Xiao, C Cao, Z Gao, Z Hu, S Liu, S Shen, L Wang, Q Xiao, J Xu, D Yang, X Lee (2014) Temporal and spatial variations in radiation and energy balance across a large freshwater lake in China. Journal of Hydrology 511: 811-824. reprint

Zhang X, X Lee, TJ Griffis, JM Baker, M Erickson, N Hu, W Xiao (2013) The influence of plants on atmospheric methane in an agriculture-dominated landscape. International Journal of Biometeorology 58: 819-833. reprint / PhD Thesis 


Zhao L, X Lee, S Liu (2013) Correcting surface solar radiation of two data assimilation systems agasint FLUXNET observations in North America. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 118: 9992-9564. reprint / online supplement

Griffis TJ, X Lee, JM Baker, MP Russelle, X Zhang, R Venterea, DB Millet (2013) Reconciling the differences between top-down and bottom-up estimates of nitrous oxide emissions for the US Corn Belt. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 27: 746-754. reprint / online supplement

Huang, J, C Zhou, X Lee, Y Bao, X Zhao, J Fung, A Richter, X Liu (2013) Impact of rapid urbanization on seasonal changes in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide and ozone over East China. Atmospheric Environment 77: 558-567. reprint

Xiao W, S Liu, W Wang, D Yang, J Xu, Chang Cao, H Li, X Lee (2013) Transfer coefficients of momentum, sensible heat and water vapour in the amtospheric surface layer of a large freshwater lake. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 148: 479-494. reprint

Wen XF, Y Meng, XY Zhang, XM Sun, X Lee (2013) Evaluating calibration strategies for isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy for atmospheric 13CO2/12CO2 measurement. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 6: 1491-1501 reprint

Deng B, S Liu, W Xiao, W Wang, J Jin, X Lee (2013) Evaluation of the CLM4 lake model at a large and shallow freshwater lake. Journal of Hydrometeorology 14: 636-649. reprint / online data supplement


Covey KR, SA Wood, RJ Warren II, X Lee, MA Bradford (2012) Elevated methane concentrations in trees of an upland forest. Geophysical Research Letters 39: L15705, doi:10.1029/2012GL052361. reprint / Yale news release Yale Daily News

Welp L, X Lee, T Griffis, XF Wen, W Xiao, SG Li, XM Sun, ZM Hu, M Val Martin, JP Huang (2012) A meta-analysis of water vapor deuterium-excess in the mid-latitude atmospheric surface layer. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 26: GB3021, doi:10.1029/2011GB004246. reprint /online supplement

Werner C, H Schnyder, M Cuntz, C Keitel, MJ Zeeman, TE Dawson, FW Badeck, E Brugnoli, J Ghashghaie, TEE Grams, ZE Kayler, M Lakatos, X Lee, M Maguas, J Ogee, KG Rascher, RTW Siegwolf, S Unger, J Welker, L Wingate, A Gessler (2012) Progress and challenges using stable isotopes to trace plant carbon and water relations across scales. Biogeosciences 9: 3083-3111. reprint

Santos E, C Wagner-Riddle, X Lee, J Warland, S Brown, R Staebler, P Bartlett, K Kim (2012) Use of the isotope flux ratio approach to investigate the C18O16O and 13CO2 exchange near the floor of a temperate deciduous forest. Biogeosciences 9: 2389-2399. reprint

Xiao W, X Lee, X Wen, X Sun, S Zhang (2012) Modeling biophysical controls on canopy foliage water 18O enrichment in wheat and corn. Global Change Biology 18: 1769-1780 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02648.x.reprint / online supplement

Lee X, J Huang, EG Patton (2012) A large-eddy simulation study of water vapour and carbon dioxide isotopes in the atmospheric boundary layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 145: 229-248. reprint / online supplement

Wen XF, X Lee, XM Sun, JL Wang, SG Li, GR Yu (2012) Inter-comparison of four commercial analyzers for water vapor isotope measurement. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 29: 235-247. reprint

Covey KR, J Orefice, X Lee (2012) The physiological ecology of carbon science in forest stands, in Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate (M. Ashton, M. L. Tyrrell, D Spalding, B Gentry eds),  Springer, New York, 31-49.

Zhang X, Y Zhao, MS Ashton, X Lee (2012) Measuring carbon in forests, in Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate (M. Ashton, M. L. Tyrrell, D Spalding, B Gentry eds),  Springer, New York, 139-144.

Wen XF, X Lee, XM Sun, JL Wang, SG Li, GR Yu (2012) Dew water isotopic ratios and their relations to ecosystem water pools and fluxes in a cropland and a grassland in China. Oecologia 168: 549-561. reprint /online supplement

Mackey CW, X Lee, RB Smith (2012) Remotely sensing the cooling effects of city-scale efforts to reduce urban heat island. Building and Environment 49: 348-358. reprint / Yale Scientific Magazine Perspective 

Lee X (2012) Editorial: Experimenting with a new form of peer review. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 152:v reprint


Lee X, ML Goulden, DY Hollinger, A Barr, TA Black, G Bohrer, R Bracho, B Drake, A Goldstein, L Gu, G Katul, T Kolb, B Law, H Margolis, T Meyers, R Monson, W Munger, R Oren, K T Paw U, AD Richardson, HP Schmid, R Staebler, S Wofsy, L Zhao (2011) Observed increase in local cooling effect of deforestation at higher latitudes. Nature 479: 384-387. reprint / online supplement Yale news release

Schultz NM, TJ Griffis, X Lee, JM Baker (2011) Identification and correction of spectral contamination in D/H and 18O/16O measured in leaf, stem, and soil water. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 25: 3360-3368. reprint

Kim K (2011) Laboratory and Field Investigations of Stable Water Isotopes in Ecosystems. PhD Dissertation, Yale University. e-copy

Kim K, X Lee (2011) Transition of stable isotope ratios of leaf water under simulated dew formation. Plant Cell and Environment 34: 1790-1801. reprint

Kim K, X Lee (2011) Isotopic enrichment of liquid water during evaporation. Journal of Hydrology 399: 364-375. reprint PhD Thesis 

Huang J, X Lee, EG Patton (2011) Entrainment and budget of heat, water vapor and carbon dioxide in a convective boundary layer driven by time-varying solar radiation. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres 116: D06308, doi:10.1029/2010/JD014938. reprint

Griffis TG, X Lee, JM Baker, K Billmark, N Schultz, M Erickson, X Zhang, J Fassbinder, W Xiao, N Hu (2011) Oxygen isotope composition of evapotranspiration and its relation to C4 photosynthetic discrimination. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences 116: G01035, doi:10.1029/2010JG001514. reprint 

Lee X, W Massman (2011) A perspective on thirty years of the Webb, Pearman and Leuning density corrections. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 139: 37-59. reprint 

South D, X Lee, MG Messina (2011) Will afforestation in temperate zones warm the Earth? Journal of Horticulture and Forestry 3: 195-199. reprint 

Wu HJ, X Lee (2011) Short-term effects of rain on soil respiration in two New England forests. Plant and Soil 338: 329-342, doi 10.1007/s11104-010-0548-2. reprint PhD Thesis

Zhang J, X Lee, G Song, S Han (2011) Pressure correction to the long-term measurement of carbon dioxide flux. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 151:70-77. reprint 


Griffis TJ, SD Sargent, X Lee, JM Baker, J Greene, M Erickson, X Zhang, K Billmark, N Schultz, W Xiao, N Hu (2010) Determining the oxygen isotope composition of evapotranspiration using eddy covariance. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 137: 307-326. reprint

Lee X (2010) Forests and climate: a warming paradox. Science 328: 1479. reprint

Lee X (2010) East and West at a crossroad: a commentary on China’s environmental regulation and resource use. Journal of Resources and Ecology 1: 87-93. reprint

Xiao W, X Lee, TJ Griffis, K Kim, LR Welp, Q Yu (2010) A modeling investigation of canopy-air oxygen isotopic exchange of water vapor and carbon dioxide in a soybean field. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences 115: G01004, doi:10.1029/2009JG001163. reprint

Wen XF, SC Zhang, XM Sun, GR Yu, X Lee (2010) Water vapor and precipitation isotope ratios in Beijing, China. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 115: D01103, doi:10.1029/2009JD012408. reprintdata download


Lee X, TJ Griffis, JM Baker, KA Billmark, K Kim, LR Welp (2009) Canopy-scale kinetic fractionation of atmospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor isotopes. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23: GB1002, doi:10.1029/2008GB003331. reprint  erratum

Wu HJ (2009) Wetting-Induced Soil Carbon Dioxide Pulses inTemperate Forests and Agricultural Fields. PhD Dissertation, Yale University. e-copy

Huang J, X Lee, EG Patton (2009) Dissimilarity of scalar transport in the convective boundary layer in inhomogeneous landscapes. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 130: 327-345. reprint


Lee X (2008) Editorial: A note on the scope of the journal. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 148: 1401.reprint

Welp LR, X Lee, K Kim, TJ Griffis, K Billmark, JM Baker (2008) d18O of water vapor, evapotranspiration and the sites of leaf evaporation in a soybean canopy. Plant Cell and Environment 31:1214-1228. reprint / journal cover image

Griffis TJ, SD Sargent, JM Baker, X Lee, BD Tanner, J Greene, E Swiatek, K Billmark (2008) Direct measurement of biosphere-atmosphere isotopic CO2 exchange using the eddy covariance technique. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 113: D08304, doi: 10.1029/2007/JD009297. reprint

Huang J, X Lee, EG Patton (2008) A modeling study of flux imbalance and the influence of entrainment in the convective boundary layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 127: 273-292. reprint

Wen, XF, XM Sun, SC Zhang, GR Yu, SD Sargent, X Lee (2008) Continuous measurement of water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotope ratios in the atmosphere. Journal of Hydrology 349:489-500. reprint


Lee X, K Kim, R Smith (2007) Temporal variations of the isotopic signal of the whole-canopy transpiration in a temperate forest. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 21: GB3013, doi:10.1029/2006GB002871. reprint / data download

Wang J, Q Yu, X Lee (2007) Simulation of crop growth and energy and carbon dioxide fluxes at different time steps from hourly to daily. Hydrological Processes 21: 2474-2492.

Yu Q, S Xu, J Wang, X Lee (2007) Influence of leaf water potential on diurnal changes in CO2 and water vapour fluxe. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 124: 161-181.

Sigler J, X Lee (2007) Reply to comment by T Michaels on “Recent trends in anthropogenic mercury emission in the northeast United States transpiration”. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 112: D13314, doi: 10.1029/2006JD008069. reprint


Sigler J, X Lee (2006) Gaseous mercury in background forest soil in the northeastern United States. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences 111: Art # G02007, doi 10.1029/2005JG000106  reprint / PhD Thesis 

Sigler J, X Lee (2006) Recent trends in anthropogenic mercury emission in the northeast United States. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 111: Art# D14316, doi:10.1029/2005JD006814. reprintYale FES press release

Lee X, R Smith, J Williams (2006)  Water vapor 18O/16O isotope ratio in surface air in New England, USA.Tellus B 58: 293-304. reprint / data download

Yu GR, XF Wen, XM Sun, BD Tanner, X Lee, JY Chen (2006) Overview of ChinaFLUX and evaluation of its eddy covariance measurement. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 137: 125-137.

Lu P, Q Yu, X Lee (2006) Advance of tree-flowering dates in response to urban climate change. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 138: 120-131.


Griffis TJ, X Lee, JM Baker, SD Sargent, JY King (2005) Feasibility of quantifying ecosystem-atmosphere C18O16O exchange using laser spectroscopy and the flux-gradient method. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 135: 44-60. reprint

Lee X, S Sargent, R Smith, B Tanner (2005) In-situ measurement of water vapor 18O/16O isotope ratio for atmospheric and ecological applications. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 22: 555-565. reprint /  dripper info


Lee X (2004) Forest-air exchange in non-ideal conditions: the role of horizontal flux and its divergence, in Forests at the Land-Atmosphere Interface (M. Mencuccini, J. Grace, J. Moncrieff, K. G. McNaughton eds), CABI Publishing, 145-157.

Lee X, J Finnigan, KT Paw U (2004) Coordinate systems and flux bias error, in Handbook of Micrometeorology: A Guide for Surface Flux Measurement and Analysis (X. Lee, W. Massman, B. Law eds),  Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 33-66.

Richardson AD, X Lee, AJ Friedland (2004) Microclimatology of treeline spruce-fir forests in the mountains of the northeastern United States. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 125: 53-66. reprint 

Lee X (2004) A model for scalar advection inside canopies and application to footprint investigation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 127: 131-141. reprint

Lee X, Q Yu, X Sun, J Liu, Q Min, Y Liu, X Zhang (2004) Micrometeorological fluxes under the influence of regional and local advection: a revisit. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 122: 111-124. reprint

Lee X, HJ Wu, J Sigler, JC Oishi, T Siccama (2004) Rapid and transient response of soil respiration to rain. Global Change Biology 10:1017-1026. reprint


Sigler JM, X Lee, W Munger (2003) Emission and long-range transport of gaseous mercury from a large-scale Canadian boreal forest fire. Environmental Science and Technology 37: 4343-4347. reprint 

Richardson AD, EG Denny, TG Siccama, X Lee (2003) Evidence for a rising cloud ceiling in eastern North America. Journal of Climate 16: 2093-2098. reprint

Lee X (2003) Fetch and footprint of turbulent fluxes over vegetation stands with elevated sources. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 107: 561-579. reprint 

Fladeland MM, MS Ashton, X Lee (2003) Landscape variations in understory PAR for a mixed deciduous forest in New England, USA. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 118: 137-141. reprint


Zhu Z, X Sun, R Zhang, H Su, Z Tang, X Lee (2002) A note on direct measurement of the aerodynamic resistance over vegetation. Journal of Atmospheric Science and Oceanic Technology 19: 1886-1890. reprint

Hu X, X Lee, DE Stevens, RB Smith (2002) A numerical study of nocturnal wavelike motion in forests. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 102: 199-223. reprint / PhD Thesis

Massman WJ,  X Lee (2002) Eddy covariance flux corrections and uncertainties in long-term studies of carbon and energy exchanges. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (FluxNet special issue) 113: 121-144.reprint

Barr AG, TJ Griffis, TA Black, X Lee, RM Staebler, JD Fuentes, Z Chen (2002) Comparing the carbon balances of mature boreal and temperate deciduous forest stands. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research 32: 813-822. reprint

Lee X, X Hu (2002) Forest-air fluxes of carbon and energy over non-flat terrain. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 103: 277-301. reprint 


Sun J, DH Lenschow, SP Burns, R Banta, R Newsom, R Coulter, St  Frasier, T Ince, C Nappo, B Balsely, M Jensen, D Miller, B Skelly, J Cuxart, W Blumen, X Lee, X Hu (2001) Intermittent turbulence in stable boundary layers and its relationship with density current. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 105: 199-219.

Baldocchi D, E Falge, L Gu, R Olson, D Hollinger, S Running, P Anthoni, Ch Bernhofer, J Fuentes, A Goldstein, G Katul, B Law, X Lee, Y Malhi, T Meyers, W Munger, W Oechel, R Valentini, S Verma, T Vesala, K Wilson, S Wofsy (2001) FLUXNET: a new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor and energy flux densities. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society 82: 2415-2434.

Blanken P, TA Black, HH Neumann, G den Hartog, PC Yang, Z Nesic, X Lee (2001) The seasonal water and energy exchange above and within a boreal aspen forest. Journal of Hydrology 245: 118-136. reprint

Lee X., OR Bullock Jr, RJ Andres (2001)Anthropogenic emission of mercury to the atmosphere in the northeast United States. Geophysical Research Letters 28: 1231-1234. reprint

He H, X Lee, RB Smith (2001) Deuterium in water vapor evaporated from a coastal salt marsh. Journal of Geophysical Research 106: 12183-12191. reprint


Lee X (2000) Water vapor density effect on measurements of trace gas mixing ratio and flux with a massflow controller. Journal of Geophysical Research 105: 17807-17810. reprint

Lee X, G Benoit, X Hu (2000) Total gaseous mercury concentration and flux at a coastal salt marsh in Connecticut, USA. Atmospheric Environment 34: 4205-4213. reprint

Mahrt L, X Lee, A Black, H Neumann, RM Staebler (2000) Nocturnal mixing in a forest subcanopy. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 101: 67-78. reprint

Lee X (2000) Air motion within and above forest vegetation in non-ideal conditions. Forest Ecology and Management 135: 3-18. reprint


Staebler RM, JD Fuentes, X Lee, KJ Puckett, HH Neumann, MJ Deaery, JA Arnold (1999) Long-term flux measurements at the Borden Forest. Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society Bulletin 28: 9-16.reprint

Lee X (1999) Reply to comment by Finnigan on “On micrometeorological observations of surface-air exchange over tall vegetation”. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 97: 65-67. reprint

Lee X, JD Fuentes, R Staebler, HH Neumann (1999) Long-term observation of the atmospheric exchange of CO2 with a temperate deciduous forest in southern Ontario, Canada. Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 15975-15984. reprint 


Lee X (1998) On micrometeorological observations of surface-air exchange over tall vegetation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 91: 39-49. reprint

Lee X, AG Barr (1998) Climatology of gravity waves in a forest. Quarterly Journal of Royal Meteorological Society 124: 1403-1419. reprint 


Blanken PD, TA Black, PC Yang, G den Hartog, HH Neumann, Z Nesic, R Staebler,  MD Novak, X Lee (1997) Energy balance and canopy conductance of a boreal aspen forest: partitioning overstory and understory components. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 102: 28915-27.

Lee X (1997) Gravity waves in a forest: a linear analysis. Journal of Atmospheric Science 54: 2574-2585. reprint

Lee X, HH Neumann, G den Hartog, JD Fuentes,TA Black, RE Mickle, PC Yang, PD Blanken (1997) Observation of gravity waves in a boreal forest. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 84: 383-398. reprint

Chen W, MD Novak, TA Black, X Lee (1997) Coherent eddies and temperature structure functions for three contrasting surfaces. Part I: ramp model with finite microfront time. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 84: 99-123.

Chen W, MD Novak, TA Black, X Lee (1997) Coherent eddies and temperature structure functions for three contrasting surfaces. Part II: renewal model for sensible heat flux. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 84: 125-147.  


Lee X (1996) Turbulence spectra and eddy diffusivity over forests. Journal of Applied Meteorology 35: 1307-1318. reprint

Lee X, TA Black, G den Hartog, HH Neumann, Z Nesic, J Olejnki (1996) Carbon dioxide exchange and nocturnal processes over a mixed deciduous forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 81: 13-29. reprint

Black TA, G den Hartog, HH Neumann, PD  Blanken, PC Yang, C Russell, Z Nesic, X Lee, SG Chen, R Staebler, MD Novak (1996) Annual cycles of water vapor and carbon dioxide fluxes in and above a boreal aspen forest. Global Change Biology 2: 219-229.


Lee X, TA Black (1994) Relating eddy correlation sensible heat flux to horizontal sensor separation in the unstable surface layer. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 99: 18545-553. reprint

Lee X, RH Shaw, TA Black (1994) Modelling the effect of barometric pressure gradient on the mean flow within forests. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 68: 201-212. reprint

Lee X, TA Black, MD Novak (1994) Comparison of flux measurements with closed- and open-path gas analyzers above an agricultural field and a forest floor. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 67: 195-202. reprint


Lee X, TA Black (1993) Turbulence near the forest floor in an old-growth Douglas-fir stand on a south-facing slope. Forest Science 39: 211-230.

Lee X, TA Black (1993) Atmospheric turbulence within and above a Douglas-fir stand. Part I: Statistical properties of the velocity field. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 64: 149-174. reprint

Lee X, TA Black (1993) Atmospheric turbulence within and above a Douglas-fir stand. Part II: Eddy fluxes of sensible heat and water vapor. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 64: 369-389. reprint


Black TA, JM Chen, X Lee, RM Sagar (1991) Characteristics of shortwave and longwave irradiance under a Douglas-fir forest stand. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 21: 1020-1028.


Lee X (1987) Study on the canopy flow structure: A first-order closure model and its numerical solution (in Chinese with English abstract). Journal of Nanjing Institute of Meteorology 10: 310-320.

Lee X (1987) A new approach to solving the Clausius-Clapeyron equation (in Chinese). Education and Technology in Meteorology No 19: 38-40.


Lee X (1986) On the assumption of canopy resistance in the Penman-Monteith equation (in Chinese). Agricultural Meteorology of China 7: 9-13.


Lee X (1985) On the estimation of evapotranspiration in western countries: A review (in Chinese with English abstract). Advances in Mechanics 15: 333-346.