Lee X (2023) Fundamentals of Boundary-Layer Meteorology (Second Edition). Springer. | contents | image fileslecture files (First Edition) | instructor solutions manual (first edition) 



Chu H, C Cao, W Wang, W Xiao, K Zhang, M Zhang, X Lee (2024) The land wet-bulb temperature increases faster than the sea surface temperature. Geophysical Research Letters 51: e2023GL106617. reprint


Zhang K, C Cao, H Chu, L Zhao, J Zhao, X Lee (2023) Increased heat risk in wet climate induced by urban humid heat. Nature 617: 38-742. reprint

Zhang K, X Lee, NM Schultz, L Zhao, C He, Q Huang, Z Liu, H Chu, J Zhao (2023) A global dataset on subgrid land surface climate (2015–2100) from the Community Earth System Model. Geoscience Data Journal 10: 208-219. reprint

Tang T, X Lee, N Schultz, K Zhang, L Cai, DM Lawrence, E Shevliakova (2023) Biophysical impact of land use and land cover change on subgrid temperature in CMIP6 models. Journal of Hydrometeorology 24: 373-388.  reprint

Su Y, C Zhang, P Ciais, Z Zeng, A Cescatti, J Shang, JM Chen, J Liu, YP Wang, W Yuan, S Peng, X Lee, Z Zhu, L Fan, X Liu, L Liu, R Lafortezza, Y Li, J Ren, X Yang, X Chen (2023) Asymmetric influence of forest cover gain and loss on land surface temperature. Nature Climate Change 13: 823-831. reprint

Xiao Q, C Hu, X Gu, Q Zeng, Z Liu, W Xiao, M Zhang, Z Hu, W Wang, J Luo, Y Qiu, X Lee, H Duan (2023) Aquaculture farm largely increase indirect nitrous oxide emission factors of lake. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 341: 108212. reprint 

Xiao K, TJ Griffis, X Lee, W Xiao, JM Baker (2023) A coupled equilibrium boundary layer model with stable water isotopes and its application to local water recycling. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 339: 109572. reprint

Hu C, W Xiao, TJ Griffis, Q Xiao, S Wang, Y Zhang, W Wang, L Zhu, X Chen, X Yu, X Lee (2023) Estimation of anthropogenic CH4 and CO2 emissions in Taiyuan‐Jinzhong region: One of the world’s largest emission hotspots. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 128: e2022JD037915. reprint

Golub M, N Koupaei-Abyazani, T Vesala, … X Lee …, AR Desai (2023) Diel, seasonal, and inter-annual variation in carbon dioxide effluxes from lakes and reservoirs. Environmental Research Letters 18: 034046. reprint 

Duan H, Q Xiao, T Qi, C Hu, M Zhang, M Shen, Z Hu, W Wang, W Xiao, Y Qiu, J Luo, X Lee (2023) Quantification of diffusive methane emissions from a large eutrophic lake with satellite imagery. Environmental Science and Technology 57: 13520-13529. reprint


Chakraborty T, ZS Venter, Y Qian, X Lee (2022) Lower urban humidity moderates outdoor heat stress. Agu Advances 3: e2022AV000729. reprint

Liu Z, W Zhan, B Bechtel, J Voogt, J Lai, T Chakraborty, Z Wang, M Li, F Huang, X Lee (2022) Surface warming in global cities is substantially more rapid than in rural background areas. Communications Earth & Environment 3: 219. reprint

Chakraborty T, X Lee, DM Lawrence (2022) Diffuse radiation forcing constraints on gross primary productivity and global terrestrial evapotranspiration. Earth’s Future 10: e2022EF002805. reprint

Pu P, M Zhang, L Jia, Z Zhang, W Xiao, S Liu, J Zhao, Y Xie, X Lee (2022) Methane emission of a lake aquaculture farm and its response to ecological restoration. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 330: 107883. reprint

Hu Y, W Xiao, J Wang, LR Welp, C Xie, H Chu, X Lee (2022) Quantifying the contribution of evaporation from Lake Taihu to precipitation with an isotope-based method. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies 58: 258-276. reprint

Liu Z, W Zhan, J Lai, B Bechtel, X Lee, F Hong, L Li, F Huang, J Li (2022) Taxonomy of seasonal and diurnal clear-sky climatology of surface urban heat island dynamics across global cities. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 187: 14-33. reprint

Chen M, W Yuan, C Cao, C Buehler, DR Gentner, X Lee (2022) Development and performance evaluation of a low-cost portable PM2.5 monitor for mobile deployment. Sensors 22: 2767. reprint

Xie Y, M Zhang, W Xiao, J Zhao, W Huang, Z Zhang, Y Hu, Z Qin, L Jia, Y Pu, H Chu, J Wang, J Shi, S Liu, X Lee (2022) Nitrous oxide flux observed with tall-tower eddy covariance over a heterogeneous rice cultivation landscape. Science of The Total Environment 810: 152210. reprint

Yang Y, X Lee (2022) A scale-separating framework for fusing satellite land surface temperature products. Remote Sensing 14: 983. reprint

Xiao Q, H Duan, B Qin, Z Hu, M Zhang, T Qi, X Lee (2022) Eutrophication and temperature drive large variability in carbon dioxide from China’s Lake Taihu. Limnology and Oceanography 67: 379-391.  reprint


Wang W, TC Chakraborty, W Xiao, X Lee (2021) Ocean surface energy balance allows a constraint on the sensitivity of precipitation to global warming. Nature Communications 12: 2115.  reprint 

Tang T, D Shindell, Y Zhang, A Voulgarakis, JF Lamarque, G Myhre, G Faluvegi, B Samset, T Andrews, D Olivié, T Takemura, X Lee (2021) Distinct surface response to black carbon aerosols. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 21: 13797–13809. reprint 

Chakraborty TC (2021) The Biophysical Impacts of Aerosols on Surface Climate. PhD Dissertation, Yale University.  e-copy 

Chakraborty TC, X Lee, DM Lawrence (2021) Strong local evaporative cooling over land due to atmospheric aerosols. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 13: e2021MS002491.  reprint

Chakraborty T, X Lee (2021) Large differences in diffuse solar radiation among current-generation reanalysis and satellite-derived products. Journal of Climate 34: 6635-6650. reprint 

Chakraborty T, X Lee (2021) Using supervised learning to develop BaRAD, a 40-year monthly bias-adjusted global gridded radiation database. Scientific Data 8: 238. reprint 

Venter Z, TC Chakraborty, X Lee (2021) Crowdsourced air temperatures contrast satellite measures of the urban heat island and its mechanisms. Science Advances 7: eabb9569. reprint 

Huang K, X Lee, B Stone Jr, J Knievel, ML Bell, KC Seto (2021) Persistent increases in nighttime heat stress from urban expansion despite heat island mitigation. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres 126: e2020JD033831. reprint 

Chakraborty TC, C Sarangi, X Lee (2021) Reduction in human activity can enhance the urban heat island: insights from the COVID-19 lockdown. Environmental Research Letters 16: 054060. reprint 

Chakraborty TC, X Lee, S Ermida, W Zhan (2021) On the land emissivity assumption and Landsat-derived surface urban heat islands: a global analysis. Remote Sensing of the Environment  265: 112682. reprint 

Lai J, W Zhan, J Voogt, J Quan, F Huang, J Zhou, B Bechtel, L Hu, K Wang, C Cao, X Lee (2021) Meteorological controls on daily variations of nighttime surface urban heat islands. Remote Sensing of the Environment 253: 112198.  reprint

Lai J, W Zhan, J Quan, B Bechtel, K Wang, J Zhou, F Huang, T Chakraborty, Z Liu, X Lee (2021) Statistical estimation of next-day nighttime surface urban heat islands. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 176: 182-195. reprint 

Zhao J, M Zhang, W Xiao, L Jia, X Zhang, J Wang, Z Zhang, Y Xie, Y Pu, S Liu, Z Feng, X Lee (2021) Large methane emission from freshwater aquaculture ponds revealed by long-term eddy covariance observation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 308: 108600. reprint 

Deventer MJ, T Roman, I Bogoev, RK Kolka, M Erickson, X Lee, JM Baker, DB Millet, TJ Griffis (2021) Biases in open-path carbon dioxide flux measurements: Roles of instrument surface heat exchange and analyzer temperature sensitivity. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 296: 108216. reprint

Chu H, X Luo, Z Ouyang, …, X Lee, …, JD Wood, D Zona (2021) Representativeness of Eddy-Covariance flux footprints for areas surrounding AmeriFlux sites. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 301-302: 108350. reprint 

Xie C, W Xiao, M Zhang, S Liu, Y Qian, H Zhu, Z Zhang, Q Liu, Y Hu, J Wang, X Lee (2021) Isotopic kinetic fractionation of evaporation  from small water bodies. Journal of Hydrology 603: 126974. reprint 

Hu Y, W Xiao, Z Wei, LR Welp, X Wen, X Lee (2021) Determining the isotopic composition of surface water vapor flux from high-frequency observations using flux-gradient and Keeling plot methods. Earth and Space Science 8: e2020EA001304. reprint 

Xiao Q, Z Hu, C Hu, ARM Towfiqul Islam, H Bian, S Chen, C Liu, X Lee (2021) A highly agricultural river network (Jurong River) as significant CO2 and CH4 sources. Science of Total Environment 769: 144558. reprint 

Hu C, J Xu, C Liu, Y Chen, D Yang, W Huang, L Deng, S Liu, TJ Griffis, X Lee (2021) Anthropogenic and natural controls on atmospheric δ13C-CO2 variations in the Yangtze River Delta: Insights from a carbon isotope modeling framework. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics  21: 10015-10037 reprint 

Huang W, TJ Griffis, C Hu, W Xiao, X Lee (2021) Seasonal variations of CH4 emissions in the Yangtze River Delta region of China are driven by agricultural activities. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 38:1537-1551. reprint 



Ruehr S, X Lee, R Smith, X Li, Z Xu, S Liu, X Yang, Y Zhou (2020) A mechanistic investigation of the oasis effect in the Zhangye cropland in semiarid western China. Journal of Arid Environments 176: 104120. reprint

Cao C, Y Yang, Y Lu, N Schultze, P Gu, Q Zhou, J Xu, X Lee (2020) Performance evaluation of a smart mobile air temperature and humidity sensor for characterizing intracity thermal environment. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 37: 1891-1905. reprint | supplement

Xiao W, Z Zhang, W Wang, M Zhang, Q Liu, Y Hu, W Huang, S Liu, X Lee (2020) Radiation controls the interannual variability of evaporation of a subtropical lake. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 125: e2019JD031264. reprint | supplement1 | supplement2

Zhang Z, M Zhang, C Cao, W Wang, W Xiao, C Xie, H Chu, J Wang, J Zhao, L Jia, Q Liu, W Huang, W Zhang, Y Lu, Y Xie, Y Wang, Y Pu, Y Hu, Z Chen, Z Qin, X Lee (2020) A dataset of microclimate and radiation and energy fluxes from the Lake Taihu eddy flux network. Earth System Science Data 12: 2635-2645. reprint

Sun L, XZ Liang, T Ling, M Xu, X Lee (2020) Improving a multilevel turbulence closure model for a shallow lake in comparison with other 1‐D models. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 12: e2019MS001971. reprint

Meng L, J Mao, Y Zhou, AD Richardson, X Lee, PE Thornton, DM Ricciuto, X Li, Y Dai, X Shi, G Jia (2020) Urban warming advances spring phenology but reduces temperature response of plants in the conterminous United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 117: 4228-4233. reprint 

Shao L, G Li, Q Zhao, Y Li, Y Sun, W Wang, C Cai, W Chen, R Liu, W Luo, X Yin, X Lee (2020) The fertilization effect of global dimming on crop yields is not attributed to an improved light interception. Global Change Biology 26: 1697-1713. reprint  

Hu C, TJ Griffis, JM Baker, JD Wood, DB Millet, Z Yu, X Lee (2020) Modeling the sources and transport processes during extreme ammonia episodes in the US Corn Belt. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres 125: e2019JD31207. reprint    

Xiao Q, X Xu, H Duan, T Qi, B Qin, X Lee, Z Hu, W Wang,  W Xiao, M Zhang (2020) Eutrophic Lake Taihu as a significant CO2 source during 2000–2015. Water Research 170: 115331. reprint 

Xiao Q, H Duan, T Qi, Z Hu, S Liu, M Zhang, X Lee (2020) Environmental investments decreased partial pressure of CO2 in a small eutrophic urban lake: Evidence from long-term measurements. Environmental Pollution 263: 114433. reprint 

Zhou Y, Q Xiao, L Zhou, KS Jang, Y Zhang, M Zhang, X Lee, B Qin, JD Brookes, TA Davidson, E Jeppesen (2020) Are nitrous oxide emissions indirectly fueled by input of terrestrial dissolved organic nitrogen in a large eutrophic Lake Taihu, China? Science of Total Environment 722: 138005 reprint

Li J, Y Zhang, F Cao, W Zhang, M Fan, X Lee, G Michalski (2020) Stable sulfur isotopes revealed a major role of transition-metal-ion catalyzed SO2 oxidation in haze episodes. Environmental Science & Technology 54: 2626-2634. reprint 


Chakraborty T, X Lee (2019) A simplified urban-extent algorithm to characterize surface urban heat islands on a global scale and examine vegetation control on their spatiotemporal variability.  International Journal of Applied Earth Observations and Geoinformation 74: 269-280. reprint | global UHI database

Chakraborty T, X Lee (2019) Land cover regulates the spatial variability of temperature response to the direct radiative effect of aerosols. Geophysical Research Letters  46: 8995-9003. reprint | online supplement

Wei Z, X Lee, F Aemisegger, M Benetti, M Berkelhammer, M Casado, K Caylor, E Christner, D Christoph, O Garcia, Y González, T Griffis, N Kurita, J Liang, M Liang, G Lin, D Noone, K Gribanov, N Munksgaard, M Schneider, F Ritter, H Steen-Larsen, CV Coulomb, X Wen, JS Wright, W Xiao, K Yoshimura (2019) A global database of water vapor isotopes measured with high temporal resolution infrared laser spectroscopy. Scientific Data 6: 180302. reprint

Wei Z, X Lee (2019) The utility of near-surface water vapor deuterium excess as an indicator of atmospheric moisture source. Journal of Hydrology 577: 123923. reprint

Liang J, Z Wei, X Lee, JS Wright, X Cui, H Chen, G Lin (2019) Evapotranspiration characteristics distinct to mangrove ecosystems are revealed by multiple‐site observations and a modified two‐source model. Water Resources Research 55: 11250-11273. reprint

Yang Y, X Lee (2019) Four-band thermal mosaicking: a new method to process infrared thermal imagery of urban landscapes from UAV flights. Remote Sensing 11:1365.  reprint | supplemenet

Zhang M, Q Xiao, Z Zhang, Y Gao, J Zhao, Y Pu, W Wang, W Xiao, S Liu, X Lee (2019) Methane flux dynamics in a submerged aquatic vegetation zone in a subtropical lake. Science of Total Environment 672: 400-409.  reprint | supplement

Zhao J, Mi Zhang, W Xiao, W Wang, Z Zhang, Z Yu, Q Xiao, Z Cao, J Xu, X Zhang, S Liu, X Lee (2019) An evaluation of the flux-gradient and the eddy covariance method to measure CH4, CO2, and H2O fluxes from small ponds. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 275: 255-264. reprint | supplement

Xiao Q, X Xu, M Zhang, H Duan, Z Hu, W Wang, W Xiao, X Lee (2019) Coregulations of nitrous oxide emissions by nitrogen and temperature in China’s third largest freshwater lake (Lake Taihu). Limnology and Oceanography 64: 1070-1086reprint

Xiao Q, Z Hu, C Fu, H Bian, X Lee, S Chen, D Shang (2019) Surface nitrous oxide concentrations and fluxes from water bodies of the agricultural watershed in Eastern China. Environmental Pollution 251: 185-192. reprint 

Huang W, W Xiao, M Zhang, W Wang, J Xu, Y Hu, C Hu, S Liu, Xuhui Lee (2019) Anthropogenic CH4 emissions in the Yangtze River Delta based on a “top-down” method. Atmosphere 10: 185. reprint

Hu C, TJ Griffis, S Liu, W Xiao, N Hu, W Huang, D Yang, Xuhui Lee (2019) Anthropogenic methane emission and its partitioning for the Yangtze River Delta region of China. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences 124: 1148-1170.  reprint

Wang L, X Lee, D Feng, C Fu, Z Wei, Y Yang, Y Yin, Y Luo, G Lin (2019) Impact of large-scale afforestation on surface temperature: a case study in the Kubuqi Desert, Inner Mongolia based on the WRF model. Forests 10: 368. reprint | supplement 

Jiang S, X Lee, J Wang, K Wang (2019) Amplified urban heat islands during heat wave periods. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres.  124: 7797-7812. reprint  

Zhang X, J Huang, G Li, Y Wang, C Liu, K Zhao, X Tao, XM Hu, X Lee (2019) Improving lake-breeze simulation with WRF nested LES and lake-model over a large shallow lake. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 58: 1689-1708. reprint

Liu C, E Fedorovich, J Huang, X Hu, Y Wang, X Lee  (2019) Impact of aerosol shortwave radiative heating on the entrainment in atmospheric convective boundary layer: a large-eddy simulation study. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 76: 785-799. reprint.

Zhao K, Y Bao, J Huang, Y Wu, F Moshary, M Arend, Y Wang, X Lee (2019) A high-resolution modeling study of a heat wave-driven ozone exceedance event in New York City and surrounding regions. Atmospheric Environment  199: 368-379. reprint

Liu X, Y Zhang, Y Peng, L Xu, C Zhu, F Cao, X Zhai, M Haque, C Yang, Y Chang, T Huang, Z Xu, M Bao, W Zhang, M Fan,  X Lee (2019) Chemical and optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols in Nanjing, eastern China: regionally transported biomass burning contribution. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 19: 11213-11233. reprint



Wang W, X Lee, W Xiao, S Liu, N Schultz, Y Wang, M Zhang, L Zhao (2018) Global lake evaporation accelerated by changes in surface energy allocation in a warmer climate. Nature Geoscience 11: 410-414. reprint  / Yale news release

Xiao K, TJ Griffis, JM Baker, PV Bolstad, MD Erickson,  X Lee, JD Wood, C Hu, JL Nieber (2018) Evaporation from a temperate closed-basin lake and its impact on present, past,  and future water level. Journal of Hydrology 561: 59-75. reprint  

Yang Y, Y Wang, Z Zhang, W Wang, X Ren, Y Gao, S Liu, X Lee (2018) Diurnal and seasonal variations of thermal stratification and vertical mixing in a shallow fresh water lake. Journal of Meteorological Research 32: 219-232. reprint

Zhou Y, Q Xiao, X Yao, Y Zhang, M Zhang, K Shi, X Lee, D Podgorski, B Qin, RGM Spencer, E Jeppesen (2018) Accumulation of terrestrial dissolved organic matter potentially enhances dissolved methane levels in eutrophic Lake Taihu, China. Environmental Science and Technology 52: 10297-10306.  reprint

Wei Z, X Lee, Z Liu, U Seeboonruang, M Koike, K Yoshimura (2018) Influences of large-scale convection and moisture source on monthly precipitation isotope ratios observed in Thailand, Southeast Asia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 488: 181-192.  reprint | online supplement

Xiao W, X Lee, W Wang, M Zhang, X Wen, S Liu, Y Hu, C Xie, Z Zhang, X Zhang, X Zhao (2018) Hydrologic implications of the isotopic kinetic fractionation of open-water evaporation. Science China -  Earth Sciences 61: 1523-1532. reprint

Wei Z, X Lee, X Wen, W Xiao (2018) Evapotranspiration partitioning for three agro-ecosystems with contrasting moisture conditions: a comparison of an isotope method and a two-source model calculation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 252: 296-310.  reprint | online supplement

Wei Z, X Lee, EG Patton (2018) ISOLESC: A coupled Isotope-LSM–LES-Cloud modeling system to investigate the water budget in the atmospheric boundary layer.  Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 10: 2589-2617. reprint

Liu C, J Huang, E Fedorovich, X Hu, Y Wang, X Lee  (2018) The effect of aerosol radiative heating on turbulence statistics and spectra in the atmospheric convective boundary layer: a large-eddy simulation study. Atmosphere 9: 347. reprint

Li H, F Meier, X Lee, T Chakratorty, J Liu, M Schaap, S Sodoudi (2018) Interaction between urban heat island and urban pollution island in Berlin during summer. Science of Total Environment 636: 818-828. reprint

Wang L, X Lee, N Schultz, S Chen, Z Wei, C Fu, Y Gao, Y Yang, G Lin (2018)  Response of surface temperature to afforestation in the Kubuqi Desert, Inner Mongolia. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 123: 948-964.  reprint | online supplement

Chu H, DD Baldocchi, C Poindexter, M Abraha, A R Desai, G Bohrer, MA Arain, T Griffis, PD Blanken, TL O’Halloran, RQ Thomas, Q Zhang, S Burns, JM Frank, D Christian, S Brown, TA Black, CM Gough, BE Law, X Lee, J Chen, DE Reed, WJ Massman, K Clark, J Hatfield, J Prueger, R Bracho, JM Baker, TA Martin (2018) Temporal dynamics of aerodynamic canopy height derived from eddy covariance momentum flux data across North American Flux Networks. Geophysical Research Letters 45: 9275-9287. reprint

Gao Y, X Lee, S Liu, N Hu, X Wei, C Hu, C Liu, Z Zhang, Y Yang (2018)  Spatiotemporal variability of the near-surface CO2 concentration across an industrial-urban-rural transect, Nanjing, China. Science of the Total Environment 631-632: 1192-1200.  reprint

Hu N,  S Liu, Y Gao, J Xu, X Zhang, Z Zhang, X Lee (2018) Large methane emissions from natural gas vehicles in Chinese cities. Atmospheric Environment 187: 374-380. rerprint

Hu C, TJ Griffis, X Lee, DB Millet, Z Chen, J Baker, K Xiao (2018) Top-down constraints on anthropogenic CO2 emissions within an agricultural-urban landscape. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres  123: 4674-4694.  reprint

Fu C, X Lee, TJ Griffis, JM Baker, PA Turner (2018) A modeling study of direct and indirect N2O emissions from a representative catchment in the US Corn Belt. Water Resources Research 54: 3632-3653.  reprint

Fu C, X Lee, TJ Griffis, G Wang, Z Wei (2018) Influences of root hydraulic redistribution on N2O emissions at AmeriFlux sites. Geophysical Research Letters 45: 5135-5143. reprint

Cao C, X Lee, J Muhlhausen, L Bonneau, J Xu (2018) Measuring landscape albedo using unmanned aerial vehicles. Remote Sensing 10: 1812. reprint / online supplement


Xiao W,  X Lee, Y Hu, S Liu, W Wang, X Wen, M Werner, C Xie (2017) An experimental investigation of kinetic fractionation of open-water evaporation over a large lake. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122, 11651–11663.  reprint / online supplement /data supplement

Zhao L, X Lee, N Schultz (2017) A wedge strategy for mitigation of urban warming in future climate scenarios. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17: 9067–9080. reprint / online supplement / animation 1 / animation 2

Schultz N (2017)  Global Analysis of the Biophysical Effects of Deforestation in a Changing Climate. PhD Dissertation, Yale University. e-copy

Schultz N, P Lawrence, X Lee (2017) Global satellite data highlights the diurnal asymmetry of the surface temperature response to deforestation. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences 122: 903 -917, doi:10.1002/2016JG003653. reprint  / online supplement | EOS Research Spotlight

Wei Z, K Yoshimura, L Wang, D Miralles, S Jasechko, X Lee (2017) Revisiting the contribution of transpiration to global terrestrial evapotranspiration. Geophysical Research Letters 44: 2792–2801.  reprint  /  online supplement

Wang, K, S Jiang, J Wang, C Zhou, X Wang, and X Lee (2017) Comparing the diurnal and seasonal variabilities in atmospheric and surface urban heat islands based on the Beijing urban meteorological network. Journal of  Geophysical  Research  - Atmospheres 122: 2131–2154. reprint

Hu C, Y Wang, W Wang, S Liu, M Piao, W Xiao, X Lee (2017) Trends in evaporation of a large subtropical lake. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 129: 159-170.  reprint

Wang Y, Y Gao, H Qin, J Huang, C Liu, C Hu, W Wang, S Liu, X Lee (2017) Spatiotemporal characteristics of lake breezes over Lake Taihu, China. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 56: 2053-2065. reprint

Griffis T, Z Chen, J Baker, J Wood, D Millet, X Lee, R Venterea, P Turner (2017) Nitrous oxide emissions are enhanced in a warmer and wetter world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114: 12081-12085. reprint

Fu C, X Lee, TJ GriffisEJ Dlugokencky, AE Andrews (2017) Investigation of the N2O emission strength in the U. S. Corn Belt. Atmospheric Research 194: 66-77.  reprint /  online supplement 

Xiao Q, M Zhang, Z Hu, Y Gao, C Hu, C Liu, S Liu, Z Zhang, J Zhao, W Xiao, X Lee (2017) Spatial variations of methane emission in a large shallow eutrophic lake in subtropical climate. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences 122: 1597-1614. reprint / online supplement

Wang L, X Lee, W Wang, X Wang, Z Wei, C Fu, Y Gao, L Lu, W Song, P Su, G Lin (2017) A meta-analysis of open-path eddy covariance observations of apparent CO2 flux in cold conditions in the FLUXNET network. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 34:2475–2487. reprint / online supplement 

Xu JP, X Lee, W Xiao, C Cao, S Liu, X Wen, JZ Xu, Z Zhang, J Zhao (2017) Interpreting the 13C/12C ratio of carbon dioxide in an urban airshed in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17: 3385–3399. reprint / Data and Supplemental Information

Cao F, S Zhang, K Kawamura, X Liu, C Yang, Z Xu, M Fan, W Zhang, M Bao, Y Chang, W Song, S Liu, X Lee, J Li, G Zhang, Y Zhang (2017) Chemical characteristics of dicarboxylic acids and related organic compounds in PM2.5 during biomass-burning and non-biomass-burning  seasons at a rural site of Northeast China. Environmental Pollution 231: 654-662. reprint

Chang Y, C Deng, F Cao, C Cao, Z Zou, S Liu, X Lee, J Li, G Zhang, Y Zhang (2017) Assessment of carbonaceous aerosols in Shanghai, China-Part 1: Long-term evolution, seasonal variations and meteorological effects. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17: 9945-9964. reprint

Zhang Y, H Ren, Y Sun,  F Cao, Y Chang,  S Liu,  X Lee, K Agrios, K Kawamura, D Liu, L Ren,  W Du, Wei, Z Wang, A  Prevot, S Szidat, P Fu (2017) High contribution of non-fossil sources to sub-micron organic aerosols in Beijing, China. Environmental Science and Technology  51: 7842-7852. reprint

Bao M, F Cao, Y Chang, Y Zhang, Y Gao, X Liu, Y Zhang, W Zhang, T Tang, S Liu, X Lee, J Li, G Zhang (2017) Characteristics and origins of air pollutants and carbonaceous aerosols during wintertime haze episodes at a rural site in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Atmospheric Pollution Research 8: 900-911. reprint


Cao C, X Lee, S Liu, N Schultz, W Xiao, M Zhang, L Zhao (2016) Urban heat islands in China enhanced by haze pollution. Nature Communications DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12509. reprint / Yale press release

Covey KR, CP Bueno de Mesquita, B Oberle, DS Maynard, C Bettigole, TW Crowther, MC Duguid, B Steven, AE Zanne, M Lapin, MS Ashton, CD Oliver, X Lee, MA Bradford (2016) Greenhouse trace gases in dead wood. Biogeochemistry 130: 215-226. reprint

Wang W, JP Xu, Y Gao, I Bogoev, J Cui, L Deng, C Hu, C Liu, S Liu, J Shen, X Sun, W Xiao, G Yuan, X Lee (2016) Performance evaluation of an integrated open-path eddy covariance system in a cold desert environment. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology  33: 2385-2399. reprint /  online supplement 

Chen Z, TJ Griffis, DB Millet, J Wood, X Lee, JM Baker, K Xiao, P Turner, M Chen, J Zobitz (2016) Partitioning N2O emissions within the US Corn Belt using an inverse modeling approach. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 30: 1192–1205. reprint

Schultz NM, X Lee, PJ Lawrence, DM Lawrence, L Zhao (2016) Assessing the use of sub-grid land model output to study impacts of land cover change. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres 121: 6133–6147. reprint | online supplement

Turner PA, TJ Griffis, JM Baker, X Lee, JT Crawford, LC Loken, RT Venterea (2016) The non-linearity of nitrous oxide production in rivers. Geophysical Research Letters 43: 4400-4407. reprint

Griffis TJ,  JD Wood, JM Baker, X Lee, K Xiao, Z Chen, G Gorski, N Schultz, L Welp, M Chen, J Nieber (2016) Investigating the source, transport and isotope fractionation of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16: 5139–5157. reprint

Aslan-Sungur G, X Lee, F Evrendilek, N Karakaya (2016) Large interannual variability in net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange of a disturbed temperate peatland. Science of the Total Environment 554–555: 192–202. reprint  

Wen X, B Yang, X Sun, X Lee (2016) Evapotranspiration partitioning through in-situ oxygen isotope measurements in an oasis cropland. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 230-231: 89-96reprint

Xiao W, X Wen, W Wang, Q Xiao, J Xu, C Cao, J Xu, C Hu, J Shen, S Liu, X Lee (2016) Spatial distribution and temporal variability of stable water isotopes in a large and shallow lake. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies52:443-454 . reprint / online supplement data access

Zhao L, X Lee, AE Suyker, X Wen (2016) Influence of leaf area index on the radiometric resistance to heat transfer. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 105: 105-123. reprint / PhD Thesis


Turner PA,  TJ Griffis, X Lee, JM Baker, RT Venterea, JD Wood (2015) Indirect nitrous oxide emission from streams within the US Corn Belt. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112: 9839–9843. reprint

Zhao L (2015) Natural and Anthropogenic Contributions to Urban Heat Islands. PhD Dissertation, Yale University. e-copy

Lee X, Z Gao, C Zhang, F Chen, Y Hu, W Jiang, S Liu, L Lu, J Sun, J Wang, Z Zeng, Q Zhang, Ming Zhao, Mingyu Zhou (2015) Priorities for boundary-layer meteorology research in China. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society 96: ES149-ES151. reprint

Hu Z, Q Xiao, J Yang, W Xiao, W Wang, S Liu, X Lee (2015) Temporal dynamics and regulation of ecosystem metabolism in a large subtropical shallow lake (Lake Taihu). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12: 3691–3706. reprint

Zhang X, X Lee, TJ Griffis, AE Andrews, JM Baker, MD Erickson, N Hu, W Xiao (2015) Quantifying nitrous oxide fluxes on multiple spatial scales in the Upper Midwest, USA. International Journal of Biometeorology 59: 299–310. reprint


Zhao L, X Lee, RB Smith, K Oleson (2014) Strong contributions of local background climate to urban heat islands. Nature 511: 216-219. reprint / Nature News & Views / Nature Geoscience News & Views / Yale News Release

Lee X, S Liu, W Xiao, W Wang, Z Gao, C Cao, C Hu, Z Hu, S Shen, Y Wang, X Wen, Q Xiao, J Xu, J Yang, M Zhang (2014) The Taihu Eddy Flux Network: an observational program on energy, water, and greenhouse gas fluxes of a large freshwater lake. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society 95: 1583-1594. reprint

Xiao W, S Liu, H Li, Q Xiao, W Wang, Z Hu, C Hu, Y Gao, J Shen, X Zhao, M Zhang, X Lee (2014) A flux-gradient system for simultaneous measurement of the CH4, CO2 and H2O fluxes at a lake-air interface. Environmental Science and Technology 48: 14490−14498. reprint / online supplement / data access (readmedata file)

Zhang X, X Lee, TJ Griffis, JM Baker, W Xiao (2014) Estimating regional greenhouse gas fluxes: An uncertainty analysis of planetary boundary layer techniques and bottom-up inventories. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14: 10705–10719. reprint

Santos E, C Wagner-Riddle, X Lee, J Warland, S Brown, R Staebler, P Bartlett, K Kim (2014) Temporal dynamics of oxygen isotope compositions of soil and canopy CO2 fluxes in a temperate deciduous forest. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, 119: 996-1013. reprint

Shen S, D Yang,  W Xiao, S Liu, X Lee (2014) Constraining anthropogenic CH4 emission in Nanjing and the Yangtze River Delta, China using atmospheric CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 31: 1343–1352. reprint

Hu Z, X Wen, X Sun, L Li, G Yu, X Lee, S Li (2014) Partitioning evapotranspiration through oxygen isotopic measurements of water pools and fluxes in a temperate grassland. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences 119: 358-371. reprint

Zhang M, X Lee, G Yu, S Han, H Wang, J Yan, Y Zhang, Y Li, T Ohta, T Hirano, J Kim, N Yoshifuji, W Wang (2014) Response of surface air temperature to small-scale land clearing across latitudes. Environmental Research Letters 9: 034002. reprint / online supplement / Enviromental Research Web news release 

Wang W, W Xiao, C Cao, Z Gao, Z Hu, S Liu, S Shen, L Wang, Q Xiao, J Xu, D Yang, X Lee (2014) Temporal and spatial variations in radiation and energy balance across a large freshwater lake in China. Journal of Hydrology 511: 811-824. reprint

Zhang X, X Lee, TJ Griffis, JM Baker, M Erickson, N Hu, W Xiao (2013) The influence of plants on atmospheric methane in an agriculture-dominated landscape. International Journal of Biometeorology 58: 819-833. reprint / PhD Thesis 


Zhao L, X Lee, S Liu (2013) Correcting surface solar radiation of two data assimilation systems agasint FLUXNET observations in North America. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 118: 9992-9564. reprint / online supplement

Griffis TJ, X Lee, JM Baker, MP Russelle, X Zhang, R Venterea, DB Millet (2013) Reconciling the differences between top-down and bottom-up estimates of nitrous oxide emissions for the US Corn Belt. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 27: 746-754. reprint / online supplement

Huang, J, C Zhou, X Lee, Y Bao, X Zhao, J Fung, A Richter, X Liu (2013) Impact of rapid urbanization on seasonal changes in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide and ozone over East China. Atmospheric Environment 77: 558-567. reprint

Xiao W, S Liu, W Wang, D Yang, J Xu, Chang Cao, H Li, X Lee (2013) Transfer coefficients of momentum, sensible heat and water vapour in the amtospheric surface layer of a large freshwater lake. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 148: 479-494. reprint

Wen XF, Y Meng, XY Zhang, XM Sun, X Lee (2013) Evaluating calibration strategies for isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy for atmospheric 13CO2/12CO2 measurement. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 6: 1491-1501 reprint

Deng B, S Liu, W Xiao, W Wang, J Jin, X Lee (2013) Evaluation of the CLM4 lake model at a large and shallow freshwater lake. Journal of Hydrometeorology 14: 636-649. reprint / online data supplement


Covey KR, SA Wood, RJ Warren II, X Lee, MA Bradford (2012) Elevated methane concentrations in trees of an upland forest. Geophysical Research Letters 39: L15705, doi:10.1029/2012GL052361. reprint / Yale news release Yale Daily News

Welp L, X Lee, T Griffis, XF Wen, W Xiao, SG Li, XM Sun, ZM Hu, M Val Martin, JP Huang (2012) A meta-analysis of water vapor deuterium-excess in the mid-latitude atmospheric surface layer. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 26: GB3021, doi:10.1029/2011GB004246. reprint /online supplement

Werner C, H Schnyder, M Cuntz, C Keitel, MJ Zeeman, TE Dawson, FW Badeck, E Brugnoli, J Ghashghaie, TEE Grams, ZE Kayler, M Lakatos, X Lee, M Maguas, J Ogee, KG Rascher, RTW Siegwolf, S Unger, J Welker, L Wingate, A Gessler (2012) Progress and challenges using stable isotopes to trace plant carbon and water relations across scales. Biogeosciences 9: 3083-3111. reprint

Santos E, C Wagner-Riddle, X Lee, J Warland, S Brown, R Staebler, P Bartlett, K Kim (2012) Use of the isotope flux ratio approach to investigate the C18O16O and 13CO2 exchange near the floor of a temperate deciduous forest. Biogeosciences 9: 2389-2399. reprint

Xiao W, X Lee, X Wen, X Sun, S Zhang (2012) Modeling biophysical controls on canopy foliage water 18O enrichment in wheat and corn. Global Change Biology 18: 1769-1780 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02648.x.reprint / online supplement

Lee X, J Huang, EG Patton (2012) A large-eddy simulation study of water vapour and carbon dioxide isotopes in the atmospheric boundary layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 145: 229-248. reprint / online supplement

Wen XF, X Lee, XM Sun, JL Wang, SG Li, GR Yu (2012) Inter-comparison of four commercial analyzers for water vapor isotope measurement. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 29: 235-247. reprint

Covey KR, J Orefice, X Lee (2012) The physiological ecology of carbon science in forest stands, in Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate (M. Ashton, M. L. Tyrrell, D Spalding, B Gentry eds),  Springer, New York, 31-49.

Zhang X, Y Zhao, MS Ashton, X Lee (2012) Measuring carbon in forests, in Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate (M. Ashton, M. L. Tyrrell, D Spalding, B Gentry eds),  Springer, New York, 139-144.

Wen XF, X Lee, XM Sun, JL Wang, SG Li, GR Yu (2012) Dew water isotopic ratios and their relations to ecosystem water pools and fluxes in a cropland and a grassland in China. Oecologia 168: 549-561. reprint /online supplement

Mackey CW, X Lee, RB Smith (2012) Remotely sensing the cooling effects of city-scale efforts to reduce urban heat island. Building and Environment 49: 348-358. reprint / Yale Scientific Magazine Perspective 

Lee X (2012) Editorial: Experimenting with a new form of peer review. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 152:v reprint


Lee X, ML Goulden, DY Hollinger, A Barr, TA Black, G Bohrer, R Bracho, B Drake, A Goldstein, L Gu, G Katul, T Kolb, B Law, H Margolis, T Meyers, R Monson, W Munger, R Oren, K T Paw U, AD Richardson, HP Schmid, R Staebler, S Wofsy, L Zhao (2011) Observed increase in local cooling effect of deforestation at higher latitudes. Nature 479: 384-387. reprint / online supplement Yale news release

Schultz NM, TJ Griffis, X Lee, JM Baker (2011) Identification and correction of spectral contamination in D/H and 18O/16O measured in leaf, stem, and soil water. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 25: 3360-3368. reprint

Kim K (2011) Laboratory and Field Investigations of Stable Water Isotopes in Ecosystems. PhD Dissertation, Yale University. e-copy

Kim K, X Lee (2011) Transition of stable isotope ratios of leaf water under simulated dew formation. Plant Cell and Environment 34: 1790-1801. reprint

Kim K, X Lee (2011) Isotopic enrichment of liquid water during evaporation. Journal of Hydrology 399: 364-375. reprint PhD Thesis 

Huang J, X Lee, EG Patton (2011) Entrainment and budget of heat, water vapor and carbon dioxide in a convective boundary layer driven by time-varying solar radiation. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres 116: D06308, doi:10.1029/2010/JD014938. reprint

Griffis TG, X Lee, JM Baker, K Billmark, N Schultz, M Erickson, X Zhang, J Fassbinder, W Xiao, N Hu (2011) Oxygen isotope composition of evapotranspiration and its relation to C4 photosynthetic discrimination. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences 116: G01035, doi:10.1029/2010JG001514. reprint 

Lee X, W Massman (2011) A perspective on thirty years of the Webb, Pearman and Leuning density corrections. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 139: 37-59. reprint 

South D, X Lee, MG Messina (2011) Will afforestation in temperate zones warm the Earth? Journal of Horticulture and Forestry 3: 195-199. reprint 

Wu HJ, X Lee (2011) Short-term effects of rain on soil respiration in two New England forests. Plant and Soil 338: 329-342, doi 10.1007/s11104-010-0548-2. reprint PhD Thesis

Zhang J, X Lee, G Song, S Han (2011) Pressure correction to the long-term measurement of carbon dioxide flux. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 151:70-77. reprint 


Griffis TJ, SD Sargent, X Lee, JM Baker, J Greene, M Erickson, X Zhang, K Billmark, N Schultz, W Xiao, N Hu (2010) Determining the oxygen isotope composition of evapotranspiration using eddy covariance. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 137: 307-326. reprint

Lee X (2010) Forests and climate: a warming paradox. Science 328: 1479. reprint

Lee X (2010) East and West at a crossroad: a commentary on China’s environmental regulation and resource use. Journal of Resources and Ecology 1: 87-93. reprint

Xiao W, X Lee, TJ Griffis, K Kim, LR Welp, Q Yu (2010) A modeling investigation of canopy-air oxygen isotopic exchange of water vapor and carbon dioxide in a soybean field. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences 115: G01004, doi:10.1029/2009JG001163. reprint

Wen XF, SC Zhang, XM Sun, GR Yu, X Lee (2010) Water vapor and precipitation isotope ratios in Beijing, China. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 115: D01103, doi:10.1029/2009JD012408. reprintdata download


Lee X, TJ Griffis, JM Baker, KA Billmark, K Kim, LR Welp (2009) Canopy-scale kinetic fractionation of atmospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor isotopes. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23: GB1002, doi:10.1029/2008GB003331. reprint  erratum

Wu HJ (2009) Wetting-Induced Soil Carbon Dioxide Pulses inTemperate Forests and Agricultural Fields. PhD Dissertation, Yale University. e-copy

Huang J, X Lee, EG Patton (2009) Dissimilarity of scalar transport in the convective boundary layer in inhomogeneous landscapes. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 130: 327-345. reprint


Lee X (2008) Editorial: A note on the scope of the journal. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 148: 1401.reprint

Welp LR, X Lee, K Kim, TJ Griffis, K Billmark, JM Baker (2008) d18O of water vapor, evapotranspiration and the sites of leaf evaporation in a soybean canopy. Plant Cell and Environment 31:1214-1228. reprint / journal cover image

Griffis TJ, SD Sargent, JM Baker, X Lee, BD Tanner, J Greene, E Swiatek, K Billmark (2008) Direct measurement of biosphere-atmosphere isotopic CO2 exchange using the eddy covariance technique. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 113: D08304, doi: 10.1029/2007/JD009297. reprint

Huang J, X Lee, EG Patton (2008) A modeling study of flux imbalance and the influence of entrainment in the convective boundary layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 127: 273-292. reprint

Wen, XF, XM Sun, SC Zhang, GR Yu, SD Sargent, X Lee (2008) Continuous measurement of water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotope ratios in the atmosphere. Journal of Hydrology 349:489-500. reprint


Lee X, K Kim, R Smith (2007) Temporal variations of the isotopic signal of the whole-canopy transpiration in a temperate forest. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 21: GB3013, doi:10.1029/2006GB002871. reprint / data download

Wang J, Q Yu, X Lee (2007) Simulation of crop growth and energy and carbon dioxide fluxes at different time steps from hourly to daily. Hydrological Processes 21: 2474-2492.

Yu Q, S Xu, J Wang, X Lee (2007) Influence of leaf water potential on diurnal changes in CO2 and water vapour fluxe. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 124: 161-181.

Sigler J, X Lee (2007) Reply to comment by T Michaels on “Recent trends in anthropogenic mercury emission in the northeast United States transpiration”. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 112: D13314, doi: 10.1029/2006JD008069. reprint


Sigler J, X Lee (2006) Gaseous mercury in background forest soil in the northeastern United States. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences 111: Art # G02007, doi 10.1029/2005JG000106  reprint / PhD Thesis 

Sigler J, X Lee (2006) Recent trends in anthropogenic mercury emission in the northeast United States. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 111: Art# D14316, doi:10.1029/2005JD006814. reprintYale FES press release

Lee X, R Smith, J Williams (2006)  Water vapor 18O/16O isotope ratio in surface air in New England, USA.Tellus B 58: 293-304. reprint / data download

Yu GR, XF Wen, XM Sun, BD Tanner, X Lee, JY Chen (2006) Overview of ChinaFLUX and evaluation of its eddy covariance measurement. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 137: 125-137.

Lu P, Q Yu, X Lee (2006) Advance of tree-flowering dates in response to urban climate change. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 138: 120-131.


Griffis TJ, X Lee, JM Baker, SD Sargent, JY King (2005) Feasibility of quantifying ecosystem-atmosphere C18O16O exchange using laser spectroscopy and the flux-gradient method. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 135: 44-60. reprint

Lee X, S Sargent, R Smith, B Tanner (2005) In-situ measurement of water vapor 18O/16O isotope ratio for atmospheric and ecological applications. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 22: 555-565. reprint /  dripper info


Lee X (2004) Forest-air exchange in non-ideal conditions: the role of horizontal flux and its divergence, in Forests at the Land-Atmosphere Interface (M. Mencuccini, J. Grace, J. Moncrieff, K. G. McNaughton eds), CABI Publishing, 145-157.

Lee X, J Finnigan, KT Paw U (2004) Coordinate systems and flux bias error, in Handbook of Micrometeorology: A Guide for Surface Flux Measurement and Analysis (X. Lee, W. Massman, B. Law eds),  Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 33-66.

Richardson AD, X Lee, AJ Friedland (2004) Microclimatology of treeline spruce-fir forests in the mountains of the northeastern United States. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 125: 53-66. reprint 

Lee X (2004) A model for scalar advection inside canopies and application to footprint investigation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 127: 131-141. reprint

Lee X, Q Yu, X Sun, J Liu, Q Min, Y Liu, X Zhang (2004) Micrometeorological fluxes under the influence of regional and local advection: a revisit. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 122: 111-124. reprint

Lee X, HJ Wu, J Sigler, JC Oishi, T Siccama (2004) Rapid and transient response of soil respiration to rain. Global Change Biology 10:1017-1026. reprint


Sigler JM, X Lee, W Munger (2003) Emission and long-range transport of gaseous mercury from a large-scale Canadian boreal forest fire. Environmental Science and Technology 37: 4343-4347. reprint 

Richardson AD, EG Denny, TG Siccama, X Lee (2003) Evidence for a rising cloud ceiling in eastern North America. Journal of Climate 16: 2093-2098. reprint

Lee X (2003) Fetch and footprint of turbulent fluxes over vegetation stands with elevated sources. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 107: 561-579. reprint 

Fladeland MM, MS Ashton, X Lee (2003) Landscape variations in understory PAR for a mixed deciduous forest in New England, USA. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 118: 137-141. reprint


Zhu Z, X Sun, R Zhang, H Su, Z Tang, X Lee (2002) A note on direct measurement of the aerodynamic resistance over vegetation. Journal of Atmospheric Science and Oceanic Technology 19: 1886-1890. reprint

Hu X, X Lee, DE Stevens, RB Smith (2002) A numerical study of nocturnal wavelike motion in forests. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 102: 199-223. reprint / PhD Thesis

Massman WJ,  X Lee (2002) Eddy covariance flux corrections and uncertainties in long-term studies of carbon and energy exchanges. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (FluxNet special issue) 113: 121-144.reprint

Barr AG, TJ Griffis, TA Black, X Lee, RM Staebler, JD Fuentes, Z Chen (2002) Comparing the carbon balances of mature boreal and temperate deciduous forest stands. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research 32: 813-822. reprint

Lee X, X Hu (2002) Forest-air fluxes of carbon and energy over non-flat terrain. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 103: 277-301. reprint


Sun J, DH Lenschow, SP Burns, R Banta, R Newsom, R Coulter, St  Frasier, T Ince, C Nappo, B Balsely, M Jensen, D Miller, B Skelly, J Cuxart, W Blumen, X Lee, X Hu (2001) Intermittent turbulence in stable boundary layers and its relationship with density current. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 105: 199-219.

Baldocchi D, E Falge, L Gu, R Olson, D Hollinger, S Running, P Anthoni, Ch Bernhofer, J Fuentes, A Goldstein, G Katul, B Law, X Lee, Y Malhi, T Meyers, W Munger, W Oechel, R Valentini, S Verma, T Vesala, K Wilson, S Wofsy (2001) FLUXNET: a new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor and energy flux densities. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society 82: 2415-2434.

Blanken P, TA Black, HH Neumann, G den Hartog, PC Yang, Z Nesic, X Lee (2001) The seasonal water and energy exchange above and within a boreal aspen forest. Journal of Hydrology 245: 118-136. reprint

Lee X., OR Bullock Jr, RJ Andres (2001)Anthropogenic emission of mercury to the atmosphere in the northeast United States. Geophysical Research Letters 28: 1231-1234. reprint

He H, X Lee, RB Smith (2001) Deuterium in water vapor evaporated from a coastal salt marsh. Journal of Geophysical Research 106: 12183-12191. reprint


Lee X (2000) Water vapor density effect on measurements of trace gas mixing ratio and flux with a massflow controller. Journal of Geophysical Research 105: 17807-17810. reprint

Lee X, G Benoit, X Hu (2000) Total gaseous mercury concentration and flux at a coastal salt marsh in Connecticut, USA. Atmospheric Environment 34: 4205-4213. reprint

Mahrt L, X Lee, A Black, H Neumann, RM Staebler (2000) Nocturnal mixing in a forest subcanopy. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 101: 67-78. reprint

Lee X (2000) Air motion within and above forest vegetation in non-ideal conditions. Forest Ecology and Management 135: 3-18. reprint


Staebler RM, JD Fuentes, X Lee, KJ Puckett, HH Neumann, MJ Deaery, JA Arnold (1999) Long-term flux measurements at the Borden Forest. Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society Bulletin 28: 9-16.reprint

Lee X (1999) Reply to comment by Finnigan on “On micrometeorological observations of surface-air exchange over tall vegetation”. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 97: 65-67. reprint

Lee X, JD Fuentes, R Staebler, HH Neumann (1999) Long-term observation of the atmospheric exchange of CO2 with a temperate deciduous forest in southern Ontario, Canada. Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 15975-15984. reprint


Lee X (1998) On micrometeorological observations of surface-air exchange over tall vegetation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 91: 39-49. reprint

Lee X, AG Barr (1998) Climatology of gravity waves in a forest. Quarterly Journal of Royal Meteorological Society 124: 1403-1419. reprint


Blanken PD, TA Black, PC Yang, G den Hartog, HH Neumann, Z Nesic, R Staebler,  MD Novak, X Lee (1997) Energy balance and canopy conductance of a boreal aspen forest: partitioning overstory and understory components. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 102: 28915-27.

Lee X (1997) Gravity waves in a forest: a linear analysis. Journal of Atmospheric Science 54: 2574-2585. reprint

Lee X, HH Neumann, G den Hartog, JD Fuentes,TA Black, RE Mickle, PC Yang, PD Blanken (1997) Observation of gravity waves in a boreal forest. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 84: 383-398. reprint

Chen W, MD Novak, TA Black, X Lee (1997) Coherent eddies and temperature structure functions for three contrasting surfaces. Part I: ramp model with finite microfront time. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 84: 99-123.

Chen W, MD Novak, TA Black, X Lee (1997) Coherent eddies and temperature structure functions for three contrasting surfaces. Part II: renewal model for sensible heat flux. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 84: 125-147.  


Lee X (1996) Turbulence spectra and eddy diffusivity over forests. Journal of Applied Meteorology 35: 1307-1318. reprint

Lee X, TA Black, G den Hartog, HH Neumann, Z Nesic, J Olejnki (1996) Carbon dioxide exchange and nocturnal processes over a mixed deciduous forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 81: 13-29. reprint

Black TA, G den Hartog, HH Neumann, PD  Blanken, PC Yang, C Russell, Z Nesic, X Lee, SG Chen, R Staebler, MD Novak (1996) Annual cycles of water vapor and carbon dioxide fluxes in and above a boreal aspen forest. Global Change Biology 2: 219-229.


Lee X, TA Black (1994) Relating eddy correlation sensible heat flux to horizontal sensor separation in the unstable surface layer. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 99: 18545-553. reprint

Lee X, RH Shaw, TA Black (1994) Modelling the effect of barometric pressure gradient on the mean flow within forests. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 68: 201-212. reprint

Lee X, TA Black, MD Novak (1994) Comparison of flux measurements with closed- and open-path gas analyzers above an agricultural field and a forest floor. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 67: 195-202. reprint


Lee X, TA Black (1993) Turbulence near the forest floor in an old-growth Douglas-fir stand on a south-facing slope. Forest Science 39: 211-230.

Lee X, TA Black (1993) Atmospheric turbulence within and above a Douglas-fir stand. Part I: Statistical properties of the velocity field. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 64: 149-174. reprint

Lee X, TA Black (1993) Atmospheric turbulence within and above a Douglas-fir stand. Part II: Eddy fluxes of sensible heat and water vapor. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 64: 369-389. reprint


Black TA, JM Chen, X Lee, RM Sagar (1991) Characteristics of shortwave and longwave irradiance under a Douglas-fir forest stand. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 21: 1020-1028.


Lee X (1987) Study on the canopy flow structure: A first-order closure model and its numerical solution (in Chinese with English abstract). Journal of Nanjing Institute of Meteorology 10: 310-320.

Lee X (1987) A new approach to solving the Clausius-Clapeyron equation (in Chinese). Education and Technology in Meteorology No 19: 38-40.


Lee X (1986) On the assumption of canopy resistance in the Penman-Monteith equation (in Chinese). Agricultural Meteorology of China 7: 9-13.


Lee X (1985) On the estimation of evapotranspiration in western countries: A review (in Chinese with English abstract). Advances in Mechanics 15: 333-346.